Terms and Abbreviations
Air Temperature (AT)
- Temperature of the air.
Body Mass (BM)
- Body mass of the turtle.
Body Temperature (BT)
- Body temperature of the turtle.
Captive Bred (CB)
- A turtle that was bred and/or hatched in captivity. (Also sometimes abbreviated as CBB.)
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
Curved Carapace Length (CCL)
- The length of the carapace of a turtle measured on the curved dome of the carapace.
U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)
Environmental/Ambient Temperature (ET)
- Temperature of the ambient environment.
Genetic Sex Determination (GSD)
- Sex of the turtle is determined by genetics, not temperature.
Incubation Period (IP)
- The period of time for which an egg is incubated.
Incubation Temperature (IT)
- The temperature at which an egg is incubated.
Long Term Captive (LTC)
- A turtle that was originally taken from the wild, but has been in captivity for a minimum of 12 months.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
- The DNA located in organelles called mitochondria, structures within eukaryotic cells that convert the chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Most other DNA present in eukaryotic organisms is found in the cell nucleus.
Nuclear DNA (nDNA)
- DNA contained within a nucleus of eukaryotic organisms. In mammals and other vertebrates, nuclear DNA encodes more of the genome than the mitochondrial DNA and is composed of information inherited from two parents, one male, and one female, rather than matrilineally.
Plastron Length (PL)
- The length of the plastron of a turtle on its longest line.
Straight-line Carapace Length (SCL)
-The length of the carapace of a turtle measured on its longest straight line, as if it were flat.
Temperature-Dependant Sex Determination (TSD)
- Sex of the turtle is based on the temperature it is incubated at. There are 3 types of TSD.
Temperature-Dependant Sex Determination, Type 1a (TSD-1a)
- Sex of the turtle is determined by the temperature it is incubated at. Type 1a has one transition zone and one pivotal incubation temperature. Males are produced below this temperature and females above.
Temperature-Dependant Sex Determination, Type 1b (TSD-1b)
- Sex of the turtle is determined by the temperature it is incubated at. Type 1b has one transition zone and one pivotal incubation temperature. Males are produced above this temperature and females below.
Temperature-Dependant Sex Determination, Type 2 (TSD-2)
- Sex of the turtle is determined by the temperature it is incubated at. Type 2 has two transition zones and two pivotal incubation temperatures. Males are produced in between the two transition temperatures and females at the two extremes.
Water Temperature (WT)
- Temperature of the water.
Wild Caught (WC)
- A turtle that was taken from the wild.
50 CFR Pt. 17. 2012. Web. 6 Aug. 2012. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov
Arizona Game and Fish Department: Desert Tortoises. Arizona: AZGFD: (c)2013. Web. http://www.azgfd.gov/w_c/deserttortoisemanagement.shtml
Artner, Harald, Balázs Farkas, and Victor Loehr. 2006. Turtles: Proceedings: International Turtle & Tortoise Symposium, Vienna 2002. Frankfurt Am Main: Ed. Chimaera. p.352-355.
Auffenberg, W., and W. G. Weaver, Jr. 1969. Gopherus berlandieri in southeastern Texas. Bull. Florida State Mus. Biol. Sci. 13: 141-203
Blankenship, E.L., Butterfield, B.P., and Godwin, J.C. 2008. Graptemys nigrinoda Cagle 1954 – black-knobbed map turtle, black-knobbed sawback. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., and Iverson, J.B. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No.5, pp.005.1-005.6, doi:10.3854/crm.5.005.nigrinoda.v1.2008, http://www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.
Bonin, Franck, Bernard Devaux, and Alain Dupré. 2006. Turtles of the World. Trans. Peter C.H.Pritchard. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 416 p.
Bouchard, K. 2009. Animal Diversity Web: Geochelone elegans Star Tortoise. Web. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Geochelone_elegans/
Boykin, Christopher. 2002. The Status and Demography of the Ornate Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin macrospilota) within the Saint Martins Marsh Aquatic Preserve [Online]. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St. Martins Marsh Aquatic Preserve. Web. http://www.dep.state.fl.us/coastal/sites/stmartins/pub/SMM_Terrapin_Report.pdf
Broadley, D.G. and Sachsse, W. 2011. Cycloderma frenatum Peters 1854 – Zambezi Flapshell Turtle, Nkhasi. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 055.1-055.5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.055.japonica.v1.2011, http://www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.
Buskirk, James. 1993. Captive Propagation and Husbandry of the Vietnamese Leaf Turtle. The Vivarium 5(5): 28-29, 31-33.
CaliforniaHerps.com: A Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of California. California: CaliforniaHerps: (c)2000-2014. Web. http://www.californiaherps.com/turtles/pages/a.marmorata.html
Christiansen, J.L., Cooper, J.A., Bickham, J.W. 1984. Reproduction of Kinosternon flavescens (Kinosternidae) in Iowa. The Southwestern Naturalist. 29(3): 349-351.
CITES Secretariat. 2012. “Appendices I, II, and III”. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.php
DOE/BLM (Department of Energy/Bureau of Land Management). 2013. Case Study No.1: Mojave Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and Sonoran Desert Tortoise (Gopherus morafkai). Department of Energy, Bureau of Land
Management, Washington, D.C. Web. http://www.blm.gov/…/SOD_3_Final_Desert_Tortoise_Insert.pdf
Edqvist, Ulf. Tortoise Trust: Star Tortoise Basics. (c)2014. Web. http://www.tortoisetrust.org/articles/elegans.html
Ennen, J.R., Lovich, J.E., Kreiser, B.R., Selman, W., and Qualls, C.P. 2010. Genetic and Morphological Variation Between Populations of the Pascagoula Map Turtle (Graptemys gibbonsi) in the Pearl and Pascagoula Rivers with the Description of a New Species (Graptemys pearlensis). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 9(1): 98-113.
Ernst, C.H., Altenburg, R.G.M. and Barbour, R.W. (1997) Turtles of the World. ETI Information Systems Ltd: Netherlands. Web. http://nlbif.eti.uva.nl/bis/turtles.php
Ernst, Carl H. and Jeffrey E. Lovich. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 827 p.
Ernst, Carl H., and Roger W. Barbour. 1989. Turtles of the World. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. 313 p.
Gong, S.P., Shi, H.T., Xie, C.J., Chen, C., and Xu, R.M. 2005. Spring Habitat Selection by Four Eye-spotted Turtle (Sacalia quadriocellata) in Limu Mountain of Hainan Island. Zoologicial Research. 2005, Apr. 26(2): 142-146.
Helms, Jonathan. Diamondback Terrapin World (c)2013. Web. http://www.diamondbackterrapin.com
Henze, M.J., Schaeffel, F., Wagner, H.J., and Ott, M. 2003. Accomodation behavior during prey capture in the vietnamese leaf turtle (Geoemyda spengleri). J Comp Physiol A 2004(190): 139-146.
Houseal, T.W., Bickham, J.W., Springer, M.D. 1982 Aug. Geographic Variation in the Yellow Mud Turtle, Kinosternon flavescens. Copeia. 1982(3): 567-580.
IUCN 2012. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. http://www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 21 Sept. 2012.
Iverson, J.B. 1990. Nesting and parental care in the mud turtle, Kinosternon flavescens. Can. J. Zool. 68: 230-233.
Disclaimer: The Species Profiles - Natural History, Care Guide, and Photo Gallery database is an educational resource. It does not cover all Chelonian species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about the species covered. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While theTurtleRoom's staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control.
This work by theTurtleRoom is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.